GEOLOGY

MOUNTAINS

Mountains are important components of the Earth's crust and together with highland and hill country, they cover approximately 36% of the Earth's surface. Recent Earth scientists have discovered that only a part of a mountain actually thrusts up above the surface, the remainder of the structure is hidden deep underground.

A book entitled Earth is considered a basic reference text in many universities around the world. The book states that mountains have underlying roots (Earth, Press and Siever, 1982, p.435) and that these roots are deeply embedded in the ground which give mountains a peg like shape.

God described the shape of mountains over 1400 years ago in the Quran:

"Have We not made the earth as a bed, and the mountains as pegs?" (The Quran - An-Naba 78:6-7)


Mountains have deep roots under the surface of the ground. (Earth, Press and Siever, p. 413.)


Schematic section. The mountains, like pegs, have deep roots embedded in the ground. (Anatomy of the Earth, Cailleux, p. 220.)

The root of a mountain can reach several times its' elevation above the surface of the ground. So 'peg' is a very suitable word to describe mountains on the basis of this information, since most of a peg, properly set, is hidden under the surface of the ground. The history of science tells us that the theory of mountains having deep roots was introduced only in the latter half of the nineteenth century (Geological Concept of Mountains in the Quran, El-Naggar, Z.R., 1991, 1st ed. Herndon: p.5).


Another illustration shows how the mountains are peg-like in shape, due to their deep roots. (Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens, p. 158.)

Earth scientists have also discovered that the rock which makes up the root has a lower density than the rest of the mountain. Therefore, the root acts as a foundation providing buoyancy and support for the mountain as well as hindering the shaking of the Earth and stabilising its' crust (Geological Concept of Mountains in the Quran, p.5).

Likewise, the modern theory of plate tectonics holds that mountains work as stabilisers for the Earth. The stabilising role of mountains in the framework of plate tectonics has just begun to be understood since the late 1960's. Fourteen centuries earlier God revealed in the Quran:

"And He has set firm mountains in the earth so that it would not shake with you." (The Quran - Al-Nahl 16:15)

"He created the heavens without any pillars that you can see; He set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and He scattered through it beasts of all kinds. We send down rain from the sky, and produce on the earth every kind of noble creature, in pairs." (The Quran - Luqman 31:10)

Could anyone during the time of the Messenger Muhammad (PBUH) over 1400 years ago, have known the true shape of mountains or any other detail about them? Could anyone imagine that solid massive mountains actually extend deep into the Earth and have a root, as scientists now assert? Even many textbooks of geology when discussing mountains, only describe that part which is above the surface of the Earth. However, modern geology has confirmed the truth of the Qur'anic verses.

THE LOWEST LAND

The Quran makes an interesting reference regarding the lowest part of the Earth. God revealed in the Quran:

"Romans have been defeated in the lowest land, and after their defeat, they will conquer within a few years." (The Quran - Ar-Rum 30:1-3)

This refers to the battle between the Christian Romans and Pagan Persians by the shores of the Dead Sea near Jerusalem.

Modern topographical mapping techniques have revealed that this area of the world is in fact the lowest point on Earth.

A prediction is also made of the Romans gaining victory over the Persians, (military 'superpower' at the time) within a few years. Within ten years of their defeat, the Romans gained the upper hand and defeated the Persian empire.

In view of the state of knowledge in Messenger Muhammad's (PBUH) day, it is inconceivable that many of the statements in the Quran which are connected with science could have been the work of a man.

It is legitimate, therefore, to award the Quran a special place on account of the guarantee of authenticity it provides and the presence in it of scientific statements which, when studied today, appear as a challenge to human explanation.